Dr. Michael Kamil, Emeritus Professor at Stanford University and contributing author to the ELA Common Core State Standards, explains what students need to know about evidence. He notes that research about argumentation and citing evidence indicates that schools are not teaching these skills, regardless of content area (including science), and that even if we were, it takes a long time for students to secure this outcome.
At minute 2:57, Kamil outlines what an argument is and breaks down its components into: Topic or main contention; claims about the topic; evidence for the claims; and a warrant explaining how the evidence supports the claims. At minute 4:38, we learn what evidence is and strategies to help students differentiate between claims supported by evidence and claims that are not. Then, at minute 11:50, Kamil describes warrants and ways to evaluate them.
One strategy that Kamil promotes, to assist in pulling all these elements together, is the Inquiry Chart Template (14:09) that you can learn more about here.
Kamil’s entire video presentation is located here.